Abstract reasoning

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Practice abstract reasoning for aptitude tests

What is abstract reasoning?

With abstract reasoning you are confronted with complex visual information. The test measures whether you are able to process it quickly and correctly. In addition, the information is displayed abstractly. This means that it is not clear in advance which rule must be followed to find the answer. You have to find this out yourself and apply it correctly. The idea behind the test is that a candidate in his career will also be good at drawing conclusions based on abstract information.

Diagrammatic reasoning

Diagrammatical analysis is a complex test. It measures your ability to draw the right conclusions based on complex visual information. Diagrammatic analysis consists of an input, change and an output. The change is always based on a fixed principle. The variation in the questions consists of filling in the input, the change or the output. Due to the great diversity of questions, this is a complex test.

Diagrammatic reasoning
Saville style figure sequences

Figure sequences

With a figure sequence, you get to see four to six figures and you have to determine the last figure. You get a choice of multiple answer options for the last figure. The figures follow a logical pattern. You have to find the pattern and determine the answer that resembles this pattern best.

Figure sequences come in many forms. Pictured here is one of the many forms used. Therefore, make sure that you thoroughly examine the series of figures that you can expect. That way, you can properly prepare for your test.


Matrixes are a well-known form for testing logical reasoning during an intelligence test. It is a pictorial test, in which images are used. Matrixes are known as culture-free. Partly because, for example, language and education do not play a role. The shapes used are also not reserved for Western Europe, for example. So everyone, regardless of origin, education or language, can be compared.

The matrix was conceived by John Raven in 1938 and is therefore also called Raven’s Progressive Matrices.

Raven's progressive matrices

Spatial reasoning

With spatial reasoning you have to indicate how a cube can be unfolded. For this you need to be able to convert a three-dimensional image into a two-dimensional image. You will see a cube and a number of unfolded cubes. Of the unfolded cubes, you must indicate which an extension of the example can be.

When turning cubes you get to see a cube and you have to indicate how it can be turned. You will see a number of answer options. Of these answer options, one is a possible rotation of the example. You must indicate which rotation is possible. It is indicated in advance how often the cube can be rotated and tilted.

Spatial reasoning rotating cubes
Aptitude test practice exclusion

Spatial ability – exclusion

In other logical tests you often have to find an answer that meets the rules of the figures given. With exclusion you must state exactly which figure does not fit in the list.

In principle, exclusion could be applied to every component. In practice, you only come across this as a figurative test. The advantage of this is that this component is culture-free. This means that every candidate must be able to take the test regardless of his background.


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